The Study of Satisfaction Level of Occupants towards the Maintenance and Facilities in PV10 Condominium
The population in Malaysia is on a rapid growth and this can be seen in the last three (3) years, 2007 – 2009. According to the Department of Statistics Malaysia, the population growth was from 27.17 million (2007) to 28.31 million (2009). That shows an increase of 1.14 million within three (3) years. This population figure was last updated on the 31 st July 2009. (Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Website, 2009)
According to the International and National Context of Growth from the Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020, the figure below illustrates the function of Kuala Lumpur and its conurbation (KLC). The figure illustrates ‘functional pyramid’ for the KLC with more specialised urban functions towards the apex of the pyramid, which represents Kuala Lumpur and more general functions towards its base, representing the remainder of the KLC. (DBKL International and National Context of Growth, 2009)
From Figure 1, it is shown that the number of population increases. However, the land area still remains the same. Land scarcity is faced by the people of Kuala Lumpur as more construction works are carried out to meet the demand of the increasing population. The relationship between population and living standard is obvious as the graph shows that the living standard is proportional to the population. According to Datuk Michael Yam (2009), Kuala Lumpur’s 1.7 million population is expected to expand by 30% within the next decade and that the market is getting more sophisticated with consumers demanding more facilities, convenience and built quality to improve their quality of life. (The Star, 28 March 2009)
Condominiums are on high demand in a high density area like Kuala Lumpur due to the population increase and at the same time this highly populated area is facing scarcity of land. However, the satisfaction of the occupants in a condominium is important to ensure that developers will be able to continue to expand such projects in their firm. This is because, liberalization or opening up of the market gives wider choices of goods or services for consumers which contribute to their satisfaction. (The Star, 6 July 2009) Therefore, the facilities and maintenance provided in a condominium are important to meet the occupants’ satisfaction towards the condominium they are staying.
1.2 Problem Statement
In Malaysia, as the population rises through the years, the construction of condominium development also has to increase to meet the demand of increasing residents. As the latest statistic stated that there is a population of 28.31 million (in 2009), there will also be an increase in land use. (Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Website, 2009)
In Kuala Lumpur, despite the softer conditions in the property market construction will still be an on-going process. According to one of the top companies like Sunrise Sdn. Bhd, they expect to perform well in the next two to three years due to its high unbilled sales of RM 1.36 billion. As at July, Sunrise had sold 93% of 10 Mount’ Kiara (MK10) units, 45% of 11 Mount’ Kiara (MK 11), 92% of Solaris Dutamas, 9% of The Residence Phase 2B, 90% of Mont’ Kiara Meridin, 95% of Mont’ Kiara Banyan, and 100% of Kiara Designer Suites-Kiara Walk. (The Star, 29 October 2008)
As Sunrise is focusing more on the condominium residential type of construction, it is shown that condominium is still in high demand despite the slow economic flow at the moment. However, there must be certain factors which cause the homebuyers to set their mind on purchasing the condominium of their choice. To successfully compete in the long term, the company must be sure that existing customers are satisfied. Providing superior quality and keeping customers satisfied are rapidly becoming the ways for companies to stand out among the other companies. (Zeljko M. Torbica and Robert C. Stroh., 2001)
According to the National House Buyers Association, management and maintenance ranked second in the types of complaint in the complaints statistics. (National House Buyers Association, 2006) The complaints statistics is as illustrated in Figure 2.
Therefore, it is important to carry out the research about the satisfaction of the occupants in the aspect of the maintenance and facilities provided in a condominium. Besides that, ways of improving the maintenance and facilities from the occupants’ point of view will also be carried out in this research.
1.3 Aim & Objectives
To look into the satisfaction levels of occupants towards the maintenance and facilities of the condominium.
- To determine the satisfaction of occupants in PV 10 Condominium with the maintenance and facilities provided.
- To determine the ways to improve the maintenance and facilities to increase the satisfaction of occupants in PV10 Condominium.
1.4 Benefits/Importance of Study
This study will benefit three parties; consisting of the developer, the management of the condominium and the occupants of condominiums. The developers will be able to plan their construction wisely to increase the demand in houses and preserve the developer’s reputation as it is one of the essential key to success for a developer. On the other hand, occupants or homebuyers will benefit when they are able to purchase and stay in the type of house they wish to have, and to own a worth buying piece of property. Besides that, the management of the condominium will be able to plan their management in the maintenance and facilities offered to the occupants as this is the key to customer satisfaction.
1.5 Scope of Study
This case study will be carried out in PV 10, Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak. There are 4 blocks of condominium in PV10 and they will be taken into consideration for this research. This place is chosen because it is one of the latest condominiums built in one of the highly populated area. Maintenance and facilities offered will be further looked into. The maintenance in the condominium will cover the cleanliness and collection of rubbish maintenance, the lifts operation and lighting maintenance and water maintenance. On the other hand, the facilities in the condominium will cover the recreational facilities such as play ground for children, health facilities and the safety facilities. In addition, another facility which will be looked into will be the car parks provided. Maintenance of facilities will also be explained.
1.6 Research Methodology
The increase in condominium construction is proportional to the rapid growth of the population in Malaysia. Besides that, land scarcity in high density areas of Kuala Lumpur forces the people to go further into the development of condominiums.
1.6.2 Literature Review
Data collected will be secondary type of data collection. They consist of:
Relevant books will be from the Tunku Abdul Rahman Library and National Library. The type of books will be those under building maintenance, facility management, economy, development, research and dissertation studies, property management and other relevant books to the research study.
Magazines and Newspapers
Magazines and newspapers used will be from local newspapers and magazines. Newspapers search will be the online type of newspaper. News and updates will be taken based on current issues regarding construction, development, property, and maintenance and facilities management that are reported in the newspapers and magazines.
Online resources and Journals
Online resources will be from reliable sources which provide reference of research papers such as online journals and articles. Relevant sources to the research studies will be taken into consideration through these websites. Online journals will also be those which are regarding with the research study and are available through the college library website which linked to reliable sources such as Emerald.
PV10 will be the place of case study for this research. This condominium is situated at Jalan Genting Kelang. Resources will be obtained from the management of the condominium and the developer of the condominium.
Primary data will be used in this research and data through this type of data will be analysed. Questionnaire will be selected in order to scrutinize the feedback from the respondent. First, a set of questionnaire will be set. After that, the set of questionnaire will be distributed to occupants in PV10 to get their responds. A selected sample size of 200 will be chosen randomly. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software will be used to analyse the data. Snowball sampling type will be used to determine the satisfaction of occupants in PV10. This type of sampling is chosen as this sampling design will be given out randomly. Besides that, this study design will increase the number of participants in process.
1.6.5 Conclusion & Recommendation
Ways of improving the condominium will be suggested base on the data that will be collected.
Author unknown, Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Website. 2009. Population (updated 31 July 2009). Viewed on 2 August 2009. Available from:
Author unknown, DBKL. 2009. Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020: International and National Context of Growth. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from:
Ng, A. 2009. Raising KL’s living standards. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from:
Tan Sri Abdul Rahman Mamat, 2009. Making sense of liberalisation. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from:
Author unknown, 2009. Sunrise is confident RM1.3bil in unbilled sales can sustain performance over three years. Viewed 10 July 2009. Available from:
Torbica, Zeljko M. and Stroh., Robert C. 2001. ‘Customer satisfaction in home building’. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 127(1), pp.82.
Author unknown, 2006. Complaints Statistics. Viewed on 10 July 2009. Available from:
Looking into the population of the world, it is clear that the population will increase as the years go by. The population in the urban areas will increase while the population in the rural areas will decrease through the years. This can be proven when the United Nations (2008), when the World Urbanization Prospects the 2007 Revision corroborates that the world population will reach a landmark in 2008 for the first time in history, as the urban population will equal the rural population of the world and, from then on, the world population will be urban in its majority.
The United Nation (2008) also stated that from the year 2007 to 2050, the world population is expected to increase by 2.5 billion, passing from 6.7 billion to 9.7 billion. At the same time, the population living in urban areas is to gain 3.1 billion in 2007 to 6.4 billion in 2050. Thus, the urban form has interdependently affected the development and the governance of the city.
Generally, the population in Malaysia will increase as the years go by. The population in the urban areas will increase and this can be seen in the increasing population of the World – Class City of Kuala Lumpur. The Draft Kuala Lumpur (KL) City Plan 2020 has five (5) core guiding principles that will frame the draft, and one of these principles is Planning ‘For and With’ the People (DBKL, 2009).
Density Structure of Kuala Lumpur
Area Sq. Kms
Density 2005 (person/ sq. km)
Density 2020 (person/ sq. km)
Figure 4 shows the density structure of Kuala Lumpur. The figure also shows that Wangsa Maju – Maluri which is within the Setapak area, rank the highest in the 2005 data on population. At the same time, the population is expected to increase and become the third highest in population by the year 2020.
According to the DBKL (2009), Kuala Lumpur is a city that houses 2.2 million populations and provides employment to 1.4 million people. The City will thus ensure whatever its plans, builds or develop are based on the wants and needs of the people. Furthermore, the Future Population of Kuala Lumpur in DBKL (2009) stressed that Kuala Lumpur must be liveable in order to encourage people to live in the City comfortably and through the plan allows for an additional 600,000 people in the next 12 years. From the Draft KL City Plan 2020, it shows that the satisfaction of the occupants is also taken into consideration when planning of the city is done.
Therefore, this research will focus on the satisfaction level of occupants in one of the most populated area, Setapak. In this chapter, there will be reviews on some key words definition regarding the research study from various sources and the various maintenance and facilities which may also include explanation on some of the types of maintenance and function of maintenance. Reports and case studies on maintenance and facilities will also be included in this chapter.
The satisfaction level of occupants towards the maintenance and facilities in a condominium can be defined as the repair works and the upkeep of a condominium together with the functional things and services provided which fulfil the needs, claim or desire that gives gratification to the occupants or residents of the condominium. Further clarification of this statement can be found through the definition of the key words such as satisfaction, occupants, maintenance, facilities and condominium.
Finch (2004) proposed that customer satisfaction with facilities is determined not only by technical performance, but also by “an intricate set of exchange process”, such as effective communication and management of expectations. Salleh and Abdul Ghani (2008) also mentioned that residential and neighbourhood satisfaction is an important indicator of housing quality and condition, which affects individuals’ quality of life. Besides that, according to the MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009), satisfaction means happiness with arrangement, which can refer to the happiness with the way that something has been arranged or done. On the other hand, Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) defined satisfaction is the state of being satisfied and by the law, it is the payment of a debt of fulfilment of an obligation or claim. In addition, Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) further defines that satisfaction is a feeling of happiness or pleasure when someone gets something that they want, need or have demanded.
The Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) defines occupants as someone who lives in a house, room etc. Meanwhile, MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines occupant as a resident of a place. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) further clarifies that occupant as a person who occupies a place at a given time. Besides that, according to the Laws of Malaysia (2007), occupier means the person in actual occupation of the building, but, in the case of premises for lodging purposes, does not include a lodger.
Maintenance is synonymous with controlling the condition of a building so that its pattern lies within specified regions as defined by Lee (White, 1969). The MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines maintenance as the continuing repair work where work that is done regularly to keep a machine, building or piece of equipment in good condition and working order. Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) further defines maintenance as the process of maintaining or being maintained. Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) also clarifies in depth that maintenance is the repairs, painting etc. that are necessary to keep something in good condition.
In fact, Chanter and Swallow (1996) identified maintenance as actions that relate not only to the physical execution of maintenance work, but also those concerned with its initiation, financing and organisation, and the notion of an acceptable condition. This implies an understanding of the requirements for the effective usage of the building and its parts, which in turn compels broader consideration of building performance from the definition of BS3811 (1984), as it defines maintenance as a combination of any actions carried out to retain an item in, or restore it to an acceptable condition. Besides that, Singh (1996) further defined building maintenance as work undertaken in order to keep, restore or improve every facility, i.e. every part of a building, its services and surrounds to a currently accepted standard, and to sustain the utility and value of facility.
The MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines facility as something with particular function, in which something is designed or created to provide a service or fulfil a need. Besides that, Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) defines facility as a building, service, or piece of equipment provided for a particular purpose. Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) further defines facility as a place or building used for a particular activity or industry, or for providing a particular type of service.
With these definitions explained from the dictionaries, facilities can be define as services or equipments provided to improve the effectiveness of a building. However, facilities are further clarified by the Charted Institute of Building (CIOB) with the definition that facilities management is an umbrella term under which a wide range of property and user – related functions may be brought together for the benefit of the organisation and its employees as a whole (Flanagan et al., 1995). Meanwhile, Alexander (1996) mentioned in his paper that facilities management is first and foremost about organizational effectiveness.
The House Buyers Association (2009) mentioned that the word “condominium” comes from the Latin word “con” which means “together” and “dominium, meaning “property”. There are two parts in this type of property ownership. They are the ownership of the individual unit and joint ownership of the common property, in which the property is shared with other unit owners in the project. The MSN Encarta Dictionary (2009) defines condominium as an individually owned apartment, which is an individually owned unit of real estate, especially an apartment or town house, in a building or on land that is owned in common by the owners of the units. Meanwhile, the Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2009) further defines condominium as a building or complex containing a number of individually owned flats or houses. Longman English Dictionary Online (2009) later defines that condominium is one apartment in a building with several apartments, each of which is owned by the people living in it.
2.2 Maintenance In Condominium
For the maintenance in condominium in Malaysia, there is an act that was specially gazetted on 12th April 2007 for the purpose of maintaining the condominium and its surrounding, together with the facilities available in the condominium. According to the Laws of Malaysia (2007), under the act 663 building and common property (maintenance and management) act 2007, the act is to provide for proper maintenance and management of building and common property, and for matters incidental thereto. Maintenance in the condominium comprises maintenance of all the common property area in the condominium.
The building and common property (maintenance and management) act 2007 further defines common property as development area not comprised in any parcel, such as the structural elements of the building, stairs, stairways, fire escapes, entrances and exits, corridors, lobbies, fixtures and fittings, lifts, refuse chutes, refuse bins, compounds, drains, water tanks, sewers, pipes, wires, cables and ducts that serve more than one parcel, the exterior of all common parts of the building, playing fields and recreational areas, driveways, car parks and parking areas, open spaces, landscape areas, walls and fences, and all other facilities and installations and any part of the land used or capable of being used or enjoyed in common by all the occupiers of the building.
Charges which means any money collected by the owner, developer, Body or managing agent from the purchaser for the maintenance and management of the building or land intended for subdivision into parcels and common property, will be taken from the building maintenance account which is also known as building maintenance fund after the account is passed to the Joint Management Body (Laws of Malaysia, 2007).
2.2.1 Types of Maintenance
According to Gurjit Singh (1996), generally, maintenance management can be approached in the following ways:
- Cyclical maintenance: this is maintenance for recurring items such as redecoration.
- Non-cyclical maintenance: this will apply to the items identified in the condition survey and includes items that need major repairs and replacements.
- Planned preventive maintenance: this is maintenance which is carried out on regular basis to prevent breakdowns. It has the advantage of predicting the loss of facility to the owner and down-time.
- Emergency maintenance: this is maintenance which is carried out only when there is a breakdown. It is normally expensive and increases the amount of non – productive time.
Chanter and Swallow (1996) further explained the types of maintenance according to definitions given in BS 3811 and produced flow charts to summarise the types of maintenance and decision based types of maintenance as below:
(1) Planned maintenance: This is maintenance organised and carried out with forethought, control and the use of records to a predetermined plan.
(2) Unplanned maintenance: Ad hoc maintenance carried out to no predetermined plan.
(3) Preventive maintenance: Maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals, or corresponding to prescribed criteria, and intended to reduce the probability of failure, or the performance degradation of an item.
(4) Corrective maintenance: Maintenance carried out after failure has occurred, and intended to restore an item to a state in which it can perform its required function.
(5) Emergency maintenance: Maintenance which it is necessary to put in hand immediately to avoid serious consequences.
(6) Condition – based maintenance: Preventive maintenance initiated as a result of knowledge of the condition of an item from routine or continuous monitoring.
(7) Scheduled maintenance: Preventive maintenance carried out to a pre – determined interval of time, number of operations, mileage, etc.
Figure 5 Decision based types of maintenance
Source: Chanter and Swallow (1996)
2.2.2 Maintenance Function
Miles and Syagga (1987) mentioned that the function of maintenance can be divided into three groups. These three groups consist of cleaning and servicing, rectification and repair, and replacement. Both authors also added that cleaning and servicing should be carried out regularly and may be combined with a system of reporting faults, so that repairs can be carried out soon after faults become apparent, thereby avoiding the need for more expensive repairs or even replacement at a later stage.
2.2.3 Malaysia’s Report On Poor Maintenance
According to the report from National House Buyers Association (The Star, 2005), residents of Mount Karunmas Condominium fret over cracks in car park. Residents want the developer or maintenance company of the building to rectify the cracks that have appeared on the beams in the car park. Besides the cracks, there was a water leak from the extension joints which were connected to the slabs.
In this case, the developer and the maintenance parties did not deliver their duty and responsibility well despites the complaints from the residents and had pin point each other to take hold of the work. In such case, the matter was brought to the press and the local council and the developer in the end stood up rectify the defects and mentioned that defects were only minor cracks.
In another report regarding to maintenance, there was a statement stating that one of the many issues of public concern is how to develop a strong maintenance culture in Malaysia in the interest of public safety and convenience. There was also an addition stating that Malaysia is known as a country which prides itself on the provision of First World infrastructure but not in terms of its maintenance (The Star,24 June 2009)
The Star (2009) also mentioned that poor maintenance of children’s playground can result in accidents and injuries. Besides that, poor maintenance of public buildings and infrastructures can also cause accidents, injuries and also flash floods when roads and public drains are not properly maintained. (The Star, 24 June 2009)
When maintenance are not done properly, image of the country is also not preserved as tourist would come to Malaysia to visit and this give a bad image to the country when maintenance are poorly done. According to the Star (24 June 2009) improving a country’s image is not only the responsibility of the Government but also the duty of each citizen who must be civic – minded.
According to the Star (7 May 2009) former squatters moved into the Putri Laksamana apartments in Batu Caves had to deal with poor maintenance, cracking tiles, water leakages, sewage problems and even snakes entering their houses for four years. According to Sundramoorthy Veerasamy (2009), when they moved into the apartment which comprises of 400 units, many of the units had cracked floor tiles and water leaking from the roof and pipes.
There were also drainage and garbage problem, and even though the Selayang Municipal Council (MPS) promised to solve the problem, it has been eight months since the problem have not been solved (Sundramoorthy Veerasamy, 2009). Sundramoorthy (2009) also mentioned that they are losing faith in the councillors and state government finding a solution. From this, Government should be able to come out with a solution to help these residents as they are also the citizens of Malaysia and deserve to live in a properly maintained place.
Poor maintenance can also lead to criminal activities. According to the Star (7 May 2009) criminal activities like snatch thefts, break-ins, and motorcycle and car thefts are rampant there and drug addicts and pushers also haunt the area of the apartment. MPS councillor Gopalan Krishnan Rajoo (2009) also mentioned that because there is no Joint Management Body (JMB) for the apartment, it is difficult to solve the problems and residents were urged to form the JMB to bring up the residents’ problems so that they can be solved easily.
From this report, it is shown that forming a JMB in a community is important to solve certain problems and that increase in poor maintenance also would increase the crime rate in the area.
2.2.4 Case Study of Poor Maintenance
Abdulmohsen Al – Hammad, Sadi Assaf and Mansoor Al – Shihah (1997) in their research which outlines the defects and faults during the design stage that affect building maintenance in Saudi Arabia and their relative degree of importance, came out with a table on the level of importance of design defects on building maintenance. The following tables show the result from the questionnaire done from their research on the defects.
From the table above, the maintenance practicality and adequacy which is one of the defect groups rank the highest among the owners. When maintenance are not planned and done adequately, there will be defects and the defects will worsen causing the building to be not safe for the occupants and even aesthetically affected.
2.3 Facilties In Condominium
In Malaysia, there are many types of facilities available in a condominium. The National House Buyers Association (2009) mentioned that there are many facilities and services in a condominium, such as lifts, swimming pool, gym, tennis court, landscaped gardens and even security services. Further explanation was that these facilities and services are expensive to maintain. Facilities are actually one of the important key aspects which purchasers will look into when buying a condominium. This is because purchasers have to understand that they when purchasing a unit of the condominium, two things are bought.
These two things are the individual unit and the common property which includes all the facilities available in the condominium. Nowadays, facilities play a big role in portraying the image of the condominium. Besides that, facilities available in a condominium also determine and set a standard to the condominium. This can be seen when the low – end condominiums and high – end condominiums are being compared. Types of facilities available will be very different for both types of condominium, where the facilities in the high – end condominiums are more and much better than those of low – end condominiums.
2.3.1 Malaysia’s Report On Facilities
National House Buyers Association (The Star, 2008) reported that hairline cracks have appeared on pillars and car park areas of the Sri Gotong apartment block in Batu Caves for the past year. One of the occupants, Abd Rahman Suraiman, mentioned that the management company Benih Kencana Sdn. Bhd. Should act fast to prevent the situation from getting worse.
According to Rahman, who is secretary of the Sri Gotong Apartment Batu Caves Pro – tem Committee, the apartment was supposed to have condominium facilities like swimming pool, recreational area and sauna, but such facilities were lacking and the place was not properly maintained. Rahman also mentioned that the sauna room is locked, the gymnasium equipment is damaged and ever since he started staying there, one of the lifts stopped working and has yet to be repair.
This report shows that lacking of facilities in a condominium will also cause dissatisfaction to the occupants. Thus, this kind of problem gives the condominium a bad image.
In another report from the National House Buyers Association (The Star, 2004) stated that the local authorities are often hampered in their efforts to build sports facilities when developers, in fulfilling the requirement of providing open areas, allocate land that is too small or narrow. The report also added that local authorities wanted to provide more recreational facilities, especially in housing estates, but were unable to do so in some areas due to the lack of land. Developers would usually tell local authorities that they had carried out their responsibility by providing recreational through building playgrounds which are meant for younger children and this leaves teenagers without a proper place for recreation. According to the report, this could more likely cause teenagers.
Therefore, it is wise that the developers to allocate